Mules are less susceptible to hyperlipaemia than donkeys.
Mule foals are highly susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis due to ‘donkey factor’ antigen present in donkey red blood cells.
The position of the nasolacrimal duct varies greatly between mules.
The mule hoof is more similar to the horse or pony and is less susceptible to white line disease than the donkey.
In recent studies meloxicam has been proven to be more effective at reducing intra-articular joint inflammation than phenylbutazone- for more information on managing synovitis click here
Goats milk (preferably with 20g/l dextrose) or 2% fat cows milk with 20g/l of dextrose can be used in an emergency for an orphan foal
Foals with mild lower limb contracture respond well to supportive bandaging from carpus to the floor. It causes tendon laxity and reverses the deformity.
Proximal suspensory desmitis. Inflammation of the proximal part of the suspensory ligament. Signalment includes dressage horses and showjumpers, especially those with upright hindlimb conformation.
DLPMO of the tarsus
Dorsolateral-plantaromedial oblique view of the tarsus taken by moving the generator 45 degrees sideways (away from the horse) from the dorsal (front) starting position. Gives a 'Donkey's lugs' (DL) view of the talus.
For a latero-lateral view of the paranasal sinuses centre the beam just dorsal to the rostral aspect of the facial crest.